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Life Orientation Test Urdu
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- Life Orientation Test Urdu
- About Life Orientation Test Urdu
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About Life Orientation Test Urdu
Life Orientation Test Urdu
Rahat Waseem, Sadaf Ahsan, Andleeb Akhtar
Salma Andleeb, Nighat Shaheen and Naila Tabassum
The LOT was developed by Scheier and Carver (1985). It measures dispositional optimism and pessimism in terms of generalized outcome expectations. In 1994 it was revised (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994). The LOT-R is briefer than the original consisting of 10 items including four filter items (that are not scored as part of the scale).
The Life Orientation Test-Revised (LOT-R) is a measure of optimism, measuring stable dispositions. LOT-R was translated into Urdu in Pakistan for research purposes to assess one-dimensional dispositional optimism which is bipolar, ranging from optimism to pessimism.
However, many studies contradict the uni-dimensionality of the instrument, showing it to be a bi-dimensional instrument. The structure of the instrument in different cultures and with different populations has been highlighted in the literature, as cultural differences are the key elements for understanding optimism. Results confirmed the factor structure as acceptable.
The validation of the scale was done through Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) in the Pakistani context, and the alpha reliability was acceptable (α = .56). Participants were 300 adults, aged between 18 to 79 years. The article was published in the journal “Multicultural Education,” Volume 7, Issue 11, 2021.
Additionally, the LOT-R instructions ask the participants to answer the questions honestly and accurately from start to end. They should try not to let one response influence the other response and answer the question according to their own feelings, rather than how they think “most people” would answer.
Administration, Scoring and Interpretation
- The LOT is typically a self-administered questionnaire.
- It should be taken in a quiet and private setting with minimal distractions.
- Participants should read each question carefully and answer honestly based on their own beliefs and experiences.
- No specific time limit is imposed, but completing the test usually takes around 10-15 minutes.
Reliability and Validity
The results showed that alpha computed for optimism is 0.79 and for pessimism is 0.78. The validity of the Urdu scale was determined by the item sum correlations method. The inter item-correlations for the optimism scale ranged from 0.46 to 0.72 and correlations of the items to total score ranged from 0.52 to 0.78. For the pessimism scale, the inter item correlations ranged from 0.39 to 0.74 and correlations of the items with total scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.73. The alpha computed for the present study is .81 (2).
Reliability and validity of the Life Orientation Test (LOT) have been well-established in the literature. Internal consistency reliability has been demonstrated across various populations, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from .56 to .92. The test-retest reliability has also been good, with correlation coefficients ranging from .39 to .75 over intervals ranging from four weeks to two years.
Furthermore, convergent validity has been demonstrated through significant relationships between the LOT and other measures of psychological well-being and adjustment, such as self-esteem, locus of control, and coping styles. Discriminant validity has also been established, with the LOT showing little correlation with measures of neuroticism and anxiety.
A confirmatory factor analysis has established a two-factor model for the LOT, with optimism and pessimism as separate factors. In conclusion, the LOT is a reliable and valid measure of dispositional optimism and has been widely used in research to assess the relationship between optimism and various outcomes in psychology, medicine, and other fields.
Waseem, R., Ahsan, S., & Akhtar, A. (2021). Life Orientation Test-Revised: Translation and Validation in Pakistan. Multicultural Education, 7(11).
Shaheen, N., Tabassum, N., & Andleeb, S. (2015). Pessimism, optimism and psychological distress in breast cancer women. FWU Journal of Social Sciences, 9(2), 125-35.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the Life Orientation Test (LOT)?
The Life Orientation Test (LOT) is a measure of dispositional optimism, with items assessing individuals’ general expectations for positive or negative outcomes in life.
What is the purpose of the LOT?
The LOT is used to measure the extent to which individuals hold optimistic or pessimistic views of life, which has implications for their coping strategies, psychological well-being, and even physical health.
How many items are in the LOT?
The original version of the LOT consists of ten items. However, a revised version (LOT-R) was developed later, which includes four additional filler items.
How are items on the LOT scored?
Items on the LOT are typically scored on a Likert-type scale ranging from 0 (strongly disagree) to 4 (strongly agree), with higher scores indicating greater dispositional optimism.
How reliable and valid is the LOT?
The internal consistency reliability and test-retest reliability of the LOT have been shown to be good across various populations, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from .56 to .92, and correlation coefficients ranging from .39 to .75 over different time intervals. The convergent and discriminant validity of the LOT has also been demonstrated through correlation with other psychological measures.
What is the best way to administer the LOT?
The LOT can be administered in a self-report format, with participants answering the items on paper or via an online survey. It is important to ensure that participants understand the instructions and scoring system, as well as ensuring that the LOT is translated accurately if being used in a different language or culture.
What are the limitations of the LOT?
The LOT is a self-report measure and may be influenced by social desirability biases. It also measures dispositional optimism as a stable trait but may not capture situational optimism or pessimism in response to specific life events.
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