Life Orientation Test Urdu
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About Life Orientation Test Urdu
The LOT was developed by Scheier and Carver (1985). It measures dispositional optimism and pessimism in terms of generalized outcome expectations. In 1994 it was revised (Scheier, Carver & Bridges, 1994). The LOT-R is briefer than the original consisting of 10 items including four filter items (that are not scored as part of the scale).
The score on each item range from 0-4 with the following response categories, (0) strongly disagree, (1) disagree, (2) neutral (3) agree and (4) strongly agree. The maximum score on the scale is 24. Three positively worded items (1, 4, & 10) measure optimism and three negatively worded items (3, 7 & 9) measure pessimism. The validity of the scale determined by item sum correlation ranged from 0. 43 to 0.63.
The reliability of the LOT-R is within the expectable range. Cronbach alpha is 0.78. Although the L0T has in past been treated as a unidimensional measure of dispositional optimism, later studies revealed that it has a bi-dimensional structure (Chang, et al., 1994, 1997). As the majority of the sample included in the study could not read and understand English because of the minimum educational level. The test was translated into Urdu using the Back Translation Technique by the authors of the present study.
The test was translated by two experts having command of both English and Urdu languages. Both these translators were faculty members of the Jinnah College for Women, University of Peshawar. The translated versions were then carefully examined by the expert’s committee. Finally, the Urdu version was prepared in light of the expert’s suggestions. Internal consistency of the Urdu version of the scale was determined by computing alpha coefficients.
The results showed that alpha computed for optimism is 0.79 and for pessimism is 0.78. The validity of the Urdu scale was determined by the item sum correlations method. The inter item-correlations for the optimism scale ranged from 0.46 to 0.72 and correlations of the items to total score ranged from 0.52 to 0.78. For the pessimism scale, the inter item correlations ranged from 0.39 to 0.74 and correlations of the items with total scores ranged from 0.48 to 0.73. The alpha computed for the present study is .81.