Perceived Stress Scale

by Psychology Roots
2.6K views
A+A-
Reset

Perceived Stress Scale

Here in this post, we are sharing the “Perceived Stress Scale”. You can read psychometric and Author information.  We have thousands of Scales and questionnaires in our collection (See Scales and Questionnaires). You can demand us any scale and questionnaires related to psychology through our community, and we will provide you with a short time. Keep visiting Psychology Roots.

About Scale Name

Scale Name

Perceived Stress Scale

Author Details

Sheldon Cohen, Thomas Kamarck, and Robert Mermelstein

Translation Availability

Not Sure

Perceived Stress Scale
Perceived Stress Scale

Background/Description

The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) is a 10-item self-report questionnaire that measures the degree to which situations in one’s life are appraised as stressful. The PSS was developed by Sheldon Cohen, Thomas Kamarck, and Robert Mermelstein in 1983.

The PSS is based on the transactional model of stress, which states that stress is not simply a function of the objective demands of a situation, but also of the individual’s appraisal of those demands. In other words, whether or not a situation is stressful depends on how the individual perceives it.

The PSS has been shown to be a valid and reliable measure of perceived stress. It has been used in a wide variety of research studies, and has been shown to be associated with a number of negative health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, depression, and anxiety.

The PSS is a simple and easy-to-use tool that can be used to measure perceived stress in a variety of settings. It is a valuable tool for research and clinical practice.

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation

  • Introduce the PSS and explain the instructions. Tell the individual that the PSS is a 10-item questionnaire that measures how stressful they have been feeling in the past month. Explain that they should read each item carefully and indicate how often they have felt that way in the past month.
  • Distribute the PSS. Give the individual the PSS and a pencil.
  • Provide a quiet setting. The PSS should be administered in a quiet setting where the individual can complete the questionnaire without distractions.
  • Allow the individual to complete the PSS at their own pace. There is no time limit for completing the PSS.
  • Collect the PSS. Once the individual has completed the PSS, collect it from them.
  • Score the PSS. To score the PSS, you first need to reverse the scores for the four positively stated items (items 4, 5, 7, and 8). This means that a score of 0 becomes 4, a score of 1 becomes 3, and so on. Once you have reversed the scores for the positively stated items, you can then add up the scores for all 10 items. Your total PSS score will range from 0 to 40, with higher scores indicating higher levels of perceived stress.

Reliability and Validity

The Perceived Stress Scale (PSS) has been shown to be a reliable and valid measure of perceived stress.

Reliability refers to the consistency of a measure. A reliable measure will produce consistent results when it is administered repeatedly to the same individual. The PSS has been shown to be reliable, with test-retest reliability coefficients ranging from 0.70 to 0.80. This means that if an individual takes the PSS twice within a short period of time, they are likely to get similar scores each time.

Validity refers to the extent to which a measure measures what it is supposed to measure. The PSS has been shown to be valid in a number of ways. First, it has been shown to correlate with other measures of stress, such as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Second, it has been shown to predict negative health outcomes, such as cardiovascular disease, depression, and anxiety. Third, it has been shown to be sensitive to changes in stress levels over time.

Available Versions

14-Items
10-Items

Reference

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385-396.

Cohen, S., & Janicki-Deverts, D. (2012). Who’s stressed? Distributions of psychological stress in the United States in probability samples from 1983, 2006 and 2009. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24, 385-396.

Cohen, S., & Williamson, G. (1988). Perceived stress in a probability sample of the U.S. In S. Spacapam & S. Oskamp (Eds.), The social psychology of health: Claremont Symposium on Applied Social Psychology. Newbury Park, CA: Sage..

Cohen, S., & Janicki-Deverts, D. (2012). Who’s stressed? Distributions of psychological stress in the United States in probability samples from 1983, 2006 and 2009. Journal of Applied Social Psychology.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

How many items does the PSS have?
10 items

What is the range of scores for the PSS?
0-40

How is the PSS scored?
Reverse score the 4 positively stated items, then add up the scores for all 10 items.

What are the cut-offs for low, moderate, and high perceived stress on the PSS?

  • Low: 0-13
  • Moderate: 14-26
  • High: 27-40

What are the strengths of the PSS?

  • Reliable
  • Valid
  • Short and easy to use
  • Translated into over 20 languages

What are the weaknesses of the PSS?

  • Not as sensitive to change as other measures of stress
  • Not as specific to certain types of stress

Where can I find more information about the PSS?

  • PSS website: https://www.das.nh.gov/wellness/Docs%5CPercieved%20Stress%20Scale.pdf)
  • PSS manual: https://scholar.harvard.edu/files/bettina.hoeppner/files/perceived_stress_scale_pss-10.pdf

What are some tips for taking the PSS?

  • Read each item carefully and answer honestly.
  • Do not spend too much time on any one item.
  • If you are not sure how to answer an item, choose the answer that best reflects how you have been feeling in the past month.

What are some resources for managing stress?

  • Talk to your doctor or a mental health professional.
  • Get enough sleep.
  • Eat a healthy diet.
  • Exercise regularly.
  • Practice relaxation techniques, such as yoga or meditation.
  • Spend time with loved ones.
  • Do things that you enjoy.

Disclaimer

Please note that Psychology Roots does not have the right to grant permission for the use of any psychological scales or assessments listed on its website. To use any scale or assessment, you must obtain permission directly from the author or translator of the tool. Psychology Roots provides information about various tools and their administration procedures, but it is your responsibility to obtain proper permissions before using any scale or assessment. If you need further information about an author’s contact details, please submit a query to the Psychology Roots team.

Help Us Improve This Article

Have you discovered an inaccuracy? We put out great effort to give accurate and scientifically trustworthy information to our readers. Please notify us if you discover any typographical or grammatical errors.
Make a comment. We acknowledge and appreciate your efforts.

Share With Us

If you have any scale or any material related to psychology kindly share it with us at psychologyroots@gmail.com. We help others on behalf of you.

Follow

Related Posts

Leave a Comment

Adblock Detected

Please support us by disabling your AdBlocker extension from your browsers for our website.