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Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE)
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- Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE)
About Scale Name
Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE)
Ed Diener and Robert Biswas-Diener
The SPANE consists of two subscales: the Positive Experience Scale (PES) and the Negative Experience Scale (NES). The PES measures positive emotions, such as happiness, joy, and contentment, while the NES assesses negative emotions, such as sadness, anger, and anxiety. Both subscales consist of six items, and respondents rate the frequency of experiencing each emotion on a Likert-type scale ranging from “1” (very rarely or never) to “5” (very often or always).
The Scale of Positive and Negative Experience (SPANE) is a concise measurement tool comprising 12 items, equally divided into two subscales that assess positive and negative experiences. The scale encompasses a range of emotions, including physical pleasure, engagement, interest, pain, and boredom. This versatility enables the SPANE to provide valuable feedback to individuals undergoing interventions aimed at enhancing positive affect.
An inherent advantage of the SPANE lies in its utilization of general descriptors such as “positive,” “pleasant,” and “negative.” This approach allows the scale to capture the comprehensive spectrum of emotions experienced by respondents, encompassing both positive and negative states, while avoiding the need for an exhaustive list of items that would be necessary to fully represent the diverse array of positive and negative feelings.
Scoring the SPANE yields three distinct scores. The Positive Experience Score (SPANE-P) and Negative Experience Score (SPANE-N) range from 6 to 30 each. These scores can be combined by subtracting the negative score from the positive score, generating the SPANE-B score, which ranges from -24 to 24. The SPANE-B score provides an indication of the balance between positive and negative experiences, thereby aiding practitioners in exploring the significance of emotions with their clients.
Administration, Scoring and Interpretation
Introduction: Begin by explaining the purpose of the scale and ensuring that participants understand the concept of positive and negative emotions. Provide clear instructions for rating their experiences.
Specify the time frame: Determine the specific time period for which participants should recall and rate their experiences. Common options include the past week, month, or year. Clearly communicate the timeframe to participants.
Positive Experience Scale (PES): Present the six items that measure positive emotions. Each item represents a specific positive emotion, such as happiness, joy, or contentment. Participants rate the frequency of experiencing each emotion within the specified timeframe using a Likert-type scale, typically ranging from “1” (very rarely or never) to “5” (very often or always).
Negative Experience Scale (NES): Present the six items that measure negative emotions. Each item represents a specific negative emotion, such as sadness, anger, or anxiety. Participants rate the frequency of experiencing each emotion within the specified timeframe using the same Likert-type scale as in the PES.
Scoring: To calculate scores, sum the ratings of the PES items and the NES items separately. This provides an overall measure of positive and negative experiences.
Data analysis and interpretation: Analyze the scores obtained from the PES and NES separately to understand the levels of positive and negative experiences. Researchers often examine the difference between positive and negative scores to assess the balance of emotional experiences.
Reliability and Validity
- Internal consistency: The SPANE has shown strong internal consistency, indicating that the items within each subscale (Positive Experience Scale and Negative Experience Scale) are highly correlated. Studies have reported high Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for both the PES and NES, typically ranging from 0.85 to 0.95, indicating good reliability.
- Construct validity: The SPANE has demonstrated good construct validity, meaning that it measures what it intends to measure. Studies have found that the PES and NES subscales are distinct constructs, capturing positive and negative emotional experiences separately. Confirmatory factor analysis has supported the two-factor structure of the SPANE.
- Convergent and discriminant validity: The SPANE has shown evidence of convergent validity by positively correlating with other well-being measures, such as life satisfaction and positive affect scales. It has also demonstrated discriminant validity by showing weaker or negative correlations with measures of depression and negative affect.
- Sensitivity to change: The SPANE has been used to assess changes in emotional experiences over time, demonstrating sensitivity to changes in well-being. It has been utilized in intervention studies and has shown responsiveness to interventions aimed at enhancing positive emotions or reducing negative emotions.
- Cross-cultural validity: The SPANE has been translated and validated in various languages and cultural contexts, showing its cross-cultural applicability. Studies conducted across different countries have reported similar factor structures and psychometric properties, suggesting the scale’s robustness across cultures.
Overall, the SPANE has demonstrated strong reliability and validity in measuring positive and negative emotional experiences. However, it’s important to consider the specific study context and population when evaluating the reliability and validity of the scale, as results may vary depending on these factors.
Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi. D., Oishi, S., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). New measures of well-being: Flourishing and positive and negative feelings. Social Indicators Research, 39, 247-266.
Schimmack, U., Diener, E., & Oishi, S. (2002). Life-satisfaction is a momentary judgment and a stable personality characteristic: The use of chronically accessible and stable sources. Journal of Personality, 70, 345-385.
Schimmack, U., & Grob, A. (2000). Dimensional models of core affect: A quantitative comparison by means of structural equation modeling. European Journal of Personality, 14, 325-345.
Diener, E., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2008) Happiness: unlocking the mysteries of psychological wealth. Malden, MA: Wiley-Blackwell.
Frequently Asked Questions
What is the purpose of the SPANE?
The SPANE is designed to assess an individual’s subjective well-being by capturing both positive and negative emotional experiences they have had within a specific timeframe.
How many items are there in the SPANE?
The SPANE consists of 12 items in total, divided into two subscales: the Positive Experience Scale (PES) with six items measuring positive emotions, and the Negative Experience Scale (NES) with six items measuring negative emotions.
Is the SPANE suitable for longitudinal research?
Yes, the SPANE can be used in longitudinal studies to assess changes in emotional experiences over time. It has been utilized in research examining the impact of interventions and fluctuations in well-being.
How reliable is the SPANE?
The SPANE has demonstrated good reliability, with high internal consistency. Studies have reported high Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for both the PES and NES, typically ranging from 0.85 to 0.95.
Does the SPANE have good validity?
Yes, the SPANE has shown good construct validity, convergent validity (correlation with related measures of well-being), and discriminant validity (correlation with measures of negative affect and depression). It has also demonstrated sensitivity to change.
Can the SPANE be used with different populations?
Yes, the SPANE has been used with various populations, including general adult samples, college students, and diverse cultural groups. It is adaptable and suitable for assessing subjective well-being in different contexts.
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