Body Dissatisfaction Scale

by Psychology Roots

Body Dissatisfaction Scale

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About Body Dissatisfaction Scale

Scale Name

Body Dissatisfaction Scale

Author Details

Mishal Tariq and Tazvin Ijaz

Translation Availability

Not Sure

Body Dissatisfaction Scale
Body Dissatisfaction Scale


Body dissatisfaction is a common issue that affects individuals of all ages, genders, and cultures. It is defined as the negative evaluation of one’s own body, including its size, shape, and appearance. Body dissatisfaction has been linked to a range of negative outcomes, including low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors.

To address this issue, researchers Mishal Tariq and Tazvin Ijaz developed the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) in a study conducted on university students in Lahore, Pakistan. The BDS is a psychometric tool used to measure the degree of dissatisfaction an individual has with their body.

The development of the BDS was based on a thorough review of the literature on body dissatisfaction and its associated factors. The researchers conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 university students to explore the construct of body dissatisfaction. The interviews yielded a list of 31 items, which were then given to experts for content validity. The resultant scale of 26 items was then administered to 529 university students, including both men and women.

The factor analyses of the BDS revealed that the construct of body dissatisfaction was construed quite differently by men and women. Separate factor analyses for both genders were carried out, which showed 4 factors (i.e., body shape, muscularity, facial features, and hair) for boys and 3 factors (i.e., bodyweight, skeletal structure, and facial features) for girls.

The BDS has been shown to have good psychometric properties and has been used in various studies to measure body dissatisfaction in different populations. It is a valuable tool for researchers and clinicians who are interested in understanding and addressing body dissatisfaction and its associated negative outcomes.

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation

To administer the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS), you can simply provide the participant with the questionnaire and ask them to rate each item on a 5-point Likert scale from 0 (not at all) to 4 (always). You can either have them complete the questionnaire individually or in a group setting.

Here are some additional tips for administering the BDS:

  • Make sure the participant understands the instructions before they start the questionnaire.
  • Explain that there are no right or wrong answers, and that they should answer each item honestly and based on their own personal experiences.
  • If the participant has any questions about the questionnaire, be sure to answer them clearly and concisely.
  • Once the participant has completed the questionnaire, thank them for their time and let them know that their responses will be kept confidential.

Reliability and Validity

The Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS) has been shown to have good reliability and validity.

Reliability refers to the consistency and stability of the scale over time and across different samples. The BDS has been found to have high test-retest reliability, indicating that the scores are consistent over time. Additionally, the internal consistency of the scale has been found to be high, with Cronbach’s alpha values ranging from .85 to .94, indicating that the items on the scale are measuring the same construct.

Validity refers to the extent to which the scale measures what it is intended to measure. The BDS has been shown to have good content validity, as the items were developed based on a thorough review of the literature on body dissatisfaction and its associated factors. Additionally, the BDS has been found to have good concurrent validity, as it has been shown to be highly correlated with other measures of body dissatisfaction, such as the Figure Rating Scale and the Body Areas Satisfaction Scale. The BDS has also been found to have good construct validity, as the factor analyses have revealed distinct factors for men and women, indicating that the scale is measuring different aspects of body dissatisfaction for each gender.

Available Versions



Tariq, M., & Ijaz, T. (2015). Development of Body Dissatisfaction Scale for University Students. Pakistan Journal of Psychological Research, 30(2).

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Body Dissatisfaction Scale (BDS)?
The BDS is a psychometric tool used to measure the degree of dissatisfaction an individual has with their body.

How many items are on the BDS?
The BDS consists of 26 items.

What is the scoring range for the BDS?
The BDS is scored on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 0 (not at all) to 4 (always).

What is the maximum score on the BDS?
The maximum score on the BDS is 104.

What does a higher score on the BDS indicate?
A higher score on the BDS indicates greater levels of body dissatisfaction.

Is the BDS reliable?
Yes, the BDS has been shown to have high test-retest reliability and internal consistency.

Is the BDS valid?
Yes, the BDS has been shown to have good content validity, concurrent validity, and construct validity.

What populations has the BDS been used with?
The BDS has been used with various populations, including university students, adolescents, and adults.

What are some other measures of body dissatisfaction?
Other measures of body dissatisfaction include the Body Esteem Scale, the Eating Disorder Inventory, and the Body Shape Questionnaire.

What are some negative outcomes associated with body dissatisfaction?
Negative outcomes associated with body dissatisfaction include low self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and disordered eating behaviors.


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