Australian Football Mental Toughness Inventory
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About Australian Football Mental Toughness Inventory
Gucciardi, Gordon, and Dimmock (2009b) used the wealth of information from their previous study (Gucciardi et al., 2008) to develop a pool of 60 items for their 11-factor model. Gucciardi et al. (2009b) carried out a confirmatory factor analysis with 418 footballers and found the 11-factor model did not fit the data well. A 24-item, four-factor model (thrive through challenges, sports awareness, tough attitude, desire success) emerged from a principal components analysis, using both varimax and Promax rotations. Gucciardi et al. (2009b) found that the 24-item AfMTI did not fit the data with a sample of 350 youth Australian footballers. Additionally, the data from the original investigation, reported in 2008, identified 11 characteristics of MT in Australian football from interviews with 11 elite coaches. Reducing the data to a four-factor model raised concerns regarding the breadth of the construct, and Gucciardi et al. (2011) concluded that further work is required to address these concerns.