World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Questionnaire
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About World Health Organization’s Quality of Life Questionnaire
WHOQOl-BREF is a 26- item self-administered questionnaire and covers 4 dimensions of QOL ( 6 items for psychological, 7 for the physical, 3 for social, and 8 for environmental domains). The score for each question has response categories ranging from 1 to 5, with a high score indicating high QOL except in 3 questions targeting pain and discomfort, need for medical treatment, and negative feeling (19). The physical health dimension includes 7 items (mobility, daily life activities, pain, sleep, functional capacity, and energy).
The psychological domain assesses negative thinking, self-image, positive approach, self-esteem, mindset, ability to learn, memory, consolidation, religion, and psychic condition. Questions such as social support, sex-life, and personal relationship are categorized in the social relationship domain. The environmental health domain includes questions on financial assets, security, health and social services, living in the natural environment, opportunities to achieve advanced learning experiences, relaxation, and natural environment like air, noise, pollution, and transportation (20).
It relatively indicates the subjective response than the objective, by appraisal being made over the previous 2 weeks. Domains’ scores were scaled in a positive direction, and the total raw score for these 5 dimensions was transformed into 0 to 100 scale, based on standardized criteria defined by the user manual of WHO-QOL (19). Then, the analysis of this reconstructed score was done, with a higher score in each domain reflecting better quality of life.