Research Method Assignment 02
Research method in Psychology is important and here I share Questions with answers. Hope You all enjoy and Share your assignment also.
Q.1 For each of the following characteristics, distinguish between scientific vs non-scientific approaches?
Answer: Scientific and Nonscientific approach varies in many ways. An important difference is as under.
None Scientific Approach Scientific Approach
General Approach: Intuitive Empirical
Observation: Causal, uncontrolled Systematic, controlled
Reporting: Biased, Subjective Unbiased, Objective
Concept: Ambiguous Clear definitions
Instruments: Imprecise Precise
Measurement: Not valid Valid
Hypotheses: Un-testable Testable
2 Differentiate between an independent variable and a dependent variable and provide an example of each that could be used in an experiment.
Example: Effects of Coffee on Mood.
What is the major advantage of using operational definitions in psychology? In what two ways has the use of operation definitions been criticized?
The operational definition has advantageous when there is constructed in terms of observable meanings for instance self-esteem can be observable on a self-esteem scale. The operational definition can be criticized in many ways firstly, there are so many operational definitions of one construct. Secondly, sometimes operational definitions are not meaningful.
Distinguish between the accuracy and the precision of a measuring instrument.
Accuracy refers to the ability of the test which is also referred to the validity. It means truthfulness. How accurately the test measure the construct its depend upon its truthfulness. Precision refers to the degree and point or limit. It means that the test or instrument measures the value at every possible limit.
What is the difference between the validity of a measure and the reliability of a measure?
Validity refers to how well a test measures what it is purported to measure.
Reliability is the consistency of the results.
Which three types of hypotheses lack the critical characteristic of being testable?
Identify the four goals of the scientific method and briefly describe what each goal is intended to accomplish.
Ans Description prediction, explanation, and application or controlled
This is about simply describing a psychological phenomenon that is noticed.
For example, Ivan Pavlov noticed that his dogs would salivate at the sounds of footsteps or other stimuli that occurred before food was presented.
This is about explaining a phenomenon, like when or why it will occur. Here this can be done through quantitative or qualitative means.
So going with Ivan Pavlov, his experiments with those dogs using various stimuli that lead to classical conditioning
This is about predicting say when the phenomena will occur.
So for example, knowing what we know about classical conditioning, will the dogs salivate if the food is given an hour after the presentation of a neutral stimulus?
The end goal is to of course being able to control the phenomena, say behavior.
Here I will break from the classical conditioning example and look at operant conditioning. We are able to change people’s behavior by changing the ways reinforces and punishers are used.
For example, helping parents deal with a disobedient child through the use of operant methods.
Distinguish between the nomothetic approach and the idiographic approach in terms of who is studied and the nature of the generalizations that are sought.
- Idiographic: people have unique personality structures; thus some traits (cardinal traits) are more important in understanding the structure of some people than others
- Nomothetic: people’s unique personalities can be understood as them having relatively greater or lesser amounts of traits that are consistent across people (e.g., the NEO is nomothetic)
The Idiographic view emphasizes that each person has a unique psychological structure and that some traits are possessed by only one person; and that there are times when it is impossible to compare one person with others. This viewpoint also emphasizes that traits may differ in importance from person to person (cardinal, central and secondary traits). It tends to use case studies, bibliographical information, diaries, etc for information gathering.
The Nomothetic view, on the other hand, emphasizes comparability among individuals but sees people as unique in their combination of traits. This viewpoint sees traits as having the same psychological meaning in everyone. The belief is that people differ only in the amount of each trait. It is this which constitutes their uniqueness. This approach tends to use self-report personality questions, factor analysis etc. People differ in their positions along a continuum in the same set of traits.
Identify two differences between quantitative and qualitative research.
Qualitative research – the emphasis is on understanding.
Quantitative research – the emphasis is on measurement.
What are researchers able to do when they know that two variables are correlated?
If an increase in one variable tends to be associated with an increase in the other then this is known as a positive correlation. An example would be height and weight. Taller people tend to be heavier.
If an increase in one variable tends to be associated with a decrease in the other then this is known as a negative correlation. An example would be the height above sea level and temperature. As you climb the mountain (increase in height) it gets colder (decrease in temperature).
Give an example from a research study described in the text that illustrates each of the three conditions for causal inference. (You may use the same example for more than one condition).
The aim of causal inference research is to identify the impact of exposure to a particular treatment or program.
For example, if someone cut your hand and feel pain; presumably you would infer that cutting your hand caused the pain. The first condition for causal inference is the covariation of events. If one event is the cause of another, the two events must vary together; that is when one changes the other must also change. In our illustration,
What is the difference between basic and applied research?
Applied research examines a specific set of circumstances, and its ultimate goal is relating the results to a particular situation. That is, applied research uses the data directly for real-world applications.
Basic research focuses on fundamental principles and testing theories
What is an intervening variable between? Propose a psychological construct that could serve as an intervening variable between “insult” (present/absent) and “aggressive responses”. Explain how these variables might be related by proposing a hypothesis that includes your intervening variable.
The intervening variable is a mediating variable that creates a relationship between the independent and dependent variables. The question mentioned about insult is a construct that is independent and aggression is dependent. The mediating variable is a situation in which insult can increase the level of aggression.
Describe the roles of logical consistency and empirical testing in evaluating a scientific theory.
Scientific theory construction and testing are essential to the scientific method of psychology. A theory is a logically structured set of schemes that helps to define events, describe relationships among these events, and describe the occurrence of the events. Theories have the important functions of organizing empirical knowledge and guiding research by offering testable hypotheses. Intervening variables are critical to theory development in psychology because these constructs allow researchers to explain the relationships between independent and dependent variables.
Explain why rigorous tests of a theory that seek to falsify a theory’s propositions can be more informative than tests that seek to confirm a theory’s propositions.
A worthy scientific theory is one that has rigorous tests. Somewhat counter spontaneously, rigorous testing has more informative when researchers did tests that find to falsify a theory’s propositions than when they do tests that find to check them. Although tests that check a particular theory’s propositions do provide care for the specific theory that is being tested, confirmation logically does not rule out other, alternative theories of the same phenomenon.
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