Research Method Assignment 03
Research method in Psychology is important and here I share Questions with answers. Hope You all enjoy and Share your assignment also.
Q.1. Explain why researchers submit research proposals to Institutional Review Boards
(IRBs) or Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees (IACUCs) before beginning a research project, and briefly describe the functions of these committees in the research process.
The researchers submit research proposals to IRB for review because it sees the ethical principles. IACU review which the research defends the rights and welfare of all human and animal applicants. The main aim of this committee is to justify ethical problems.
Q.2. Explain how the risk/benefit t ratio is used in making ethical decisions. What factors
Contribute to judging the potential benefits of a research project?
There are many factors that affect the decision regarding the proper balance of risks and benefits of research activity. The main risk and magnitude of possible benefit to the participant is the scientific potential and social value of the research. A huge risk can be accepted when rich and instant benefits to individuals are expected or when the research has obvious scientific and social value. In determining the risk/benefit ratio, researchers also consider the quality of the research, that is, whether valid and interpretable results will be produced.
Q.3. Explain why research cannot be risk-free and describe the standard that researchers use to determine whether research participants are “at risk.” Describe briefly how characteristics of the participants in the research can affect the assessment of risk.
There are at ricks research participants who are “at-risk” illustrate the difficulties involved in ethical decision making. Life itself is at risk. Because every work, crossing streets, and riding elevators have a part of the risk. To say that human applicants in psychological research can never face any risks would bring all research to a stop. Decisions about what constitutes risk must take into consideration those risks that are part of everyday life. Researchers must also consider the characteristics of the participants when they determine risk. Certain activities might pose a serious risk for some individuals but not for others
- 4. Differentiate among the three possible types of risk that can be present in psychological research: physical, psychological, social. How do researchers typically safeguard against the possibility of social risk?
We mostly think about risk in terms of physical injury. However, participants of social science research are always at risk of socially or psychological injury. For example, if partakers’ information we’re exposed to others, potential for social risk such as embarrassment occurs. Some psychological research may pretense psychological risk if participants in the study experience serious mental or emotional stress. A researcher is grateful to protect participants from emotional or mental stress, including, when possible, stress that might arise due to participants’ misconceptions about the psychological task.
- 5. What are the three important ethical issues raised by online research?
- Lack of confidence
- Social injury
Q.6. What information does the researcher have an ethical obligation to make clear to the participant in order to ensure the participant’s informed consent? Under what conditions does the APA Ethics Code indicate that informed consent may not be necessary?
A researcher must define the criteria of the research to the participants for instance the risk-benefit, informed consents. According to APA ethics informed consents are not to be used when there is any chance for risk.
Q.7. What three dimensions do Diener and Crandall (1978) recommend that researchers
consider when they attempt to decide whether the information is public or private?
Diener and Crandall (1978) detect three major dimensions that researchers can consider to help them decide what information is remote: the sensitivity of the information, the setting, and the method of distribution of the information. When information is distributed in terms of group averages or proportions, then this is unlikely to expose specific individuals. In other situations, code systems can be used to protect participants’ confidentiality.
- 8. Explain why deception may sometimes be necessary for psychological research. Describe briefly the questions researchers should ask before using deception and describe the conditions under which it is always unethical to deceive participants.
Deception may be necessary for the researchers provided that it not maybe injurious for the subjects of the research. Deception is necessary when the researcher thinks if it will disclose he cannot get the genuine results or there is no risk of deception in the research. In some conditions where there is a high risk of injury or harm for the participant, there is unethical to withhold the information or deceive the participants. Kelman (1972) suggests that, before using deception, a researcher must give very serious consideration to (1) the importance of the study to our scientific knowledge, (2) the availability of alternative, deception-free methods, and (3) the “noxiousness” of the deception.
- 9. In what ways can debriefing benefit the participant? In what ways can debriefing benefit the researcher?
Debriefing provides complete knowledge about the study and about research in general. Debriefing allows researchers to learn how participants viewed the procedures, allows potential insights into the nature of the research findings, and provides ideas for future research.
- 10. What ethical obligations are specified in the APA Ethics Code for researchers who use animals in their research?
The ethical obligations are narrated in APA ethics while doing research with animals the researcher should treat them as human. Researchers are ethically obligated to acquire, care for, use, and dispose of animals in compliance with current federal, state, and local laws and regulations, and with professional standards.
Q.11. What conditions are required by the APA Ethics Code before animals may be subjected to stress or pain?
Animals feel pain or discomfort when alternative procedures are not available and researchers should follow the scientific, educational, or applied goals justify the procedures.
- 12. Explain how researchers decide when an individual can be credited as an author of a published scientific report.
Publication credit refers to the process of identifying as authors those individuals who have made significant contributions to the research project. Because authorship of a published
Scientific study frequently is used to measure an individual’s competence and motivation in a scientific field, it is important to acknowledge fairly those who have contributed to a project.
Q.13. Describe the procedures an author must follow to avoid plagiarism when citing information from an original source or from a secondary source.
Ethical concerns associated with assigning authorship can take many forms. For example, not only is it unethical for a faculty member to take credit for a student’s work, but it is also unethical for students to be given undeserved author credit. This latter situation may arise, e.g, in a misguided attempt by a faculty mentor to give a student an edge when competing for a position in a competitive graduate program.
Q.14. Identify the steps in an ethically informed decision process regarding whether a proposed research project should be conducted.
An ethically informed decision process should include the following steps:
- Review the facts of the proposed research situation (e.g., participants, procedure).
- Identify the relevant ethical issues, guidelines, and laws.
- Consider multiple viewpoints (e.g., participants, researchers, institutions, society, moral values).
- Consider alternative methods or procedures and their consequences,
Including the consequences of not doing the proposed research.
Q.15. According to APA, what must authors include when submitting a research manuscript to an APA journal?
Authors of manuscripts submitted to an APA journal must submit forms stating their compliance with ethical standards. These forms can be found in the Publication Manual (pp. 233–235), as well as on the APA journal Web page. Of course, a consideration of ethical issues should be made before initiating a research project, during the research process itself as problems arise (e.g., participants’ unanticipated reactions), and in preparation for discussion with editors and reviewers of the journal selected for submission of the manuscript. To help ensure ethical compliance throughout the research process, APA has published an Ethical Compliance Checklist. The Checklist covers many of the ethical issues discussed in this chapter, including institutional review, informed consent, treatment of animal subjects (if applicable), proper citation of other published work, and order of authorship. Remember: Careful review of these issues and others described in the APA compliance forms should be made prior to beginning your research.