Impact of Event Scale
Here in this post, we are sharing the “Impact of Event Scale”. You can read psychometric and Author information. We have thousands of Scales and questionnaires in our collection (See Scales and Questionnaires). You can demand us any scale and questionnaires related to psychology through our community, and we will provide you with a short time. Keep visiting Psychology Roots.
About Impact of Event Scale
It is 15 items self-reported instrument widely used to measure the current subjective stress to any event (Horowitz, Wilner & Alvarez, 1979). Available in two forms original 15 items and the revised 22 items (Weiss, & Marmer, 1997). It is based on Horowitz’s model of Emotional Processing Following a Trauma (Horowitz 1976).
According to the model until traumatic experiences are psychologically assimilated the individual will oscillate between the experience of intrusive thoughts in one moment and avoidance strategies in the next. Following this model, IES has two subscales: Intrusion and Avoidance (also prominent in other reports of psychological reactions to stress e.g. Horowitz 1976; Janis, 1969; Lazarus, 1966 & Lindemann, 1944).
The Intrusion responses include repeated thought about the trauma, e-g, unbidden thought and images, troubled dreams, strong waves of feelings, and repetitive behavior. Avoidance includes the effortful avoidance of the situations that remind the trauma such as denial of the meanings and consequences of the event behavior inhibitions or counter activity and the awareness of emotional numbness. As an individual cannot report the unconscious aspects of the denial process, but only felt such as numbness, the term Avoidance, therefore, instead of denial is used to describe this subscale.
The Intrusion subscale includes seven items and the Avoidance subscale consists of eight items. Score on each item range from 0 – 5 with the following response categories, not at all (0) rarely (1) sometimes (3), and often (5). The respondents rate the frequency of their thought in the past seven days. The maximum score range from 0 to 75. High scores indicate a higher perceived level of stress. The score can be separated into the following categories. Mildly significant level of stress (9-25), moderately significant level of stress (26-43), and (44-75) severe post traumatic stress. The test-retest reliability computed by the author is 0.87 for the total stress core, 0.89 for the Intrusion subscale, and 0.79 for the Avoidance subscale.
The split-half reliability of the total score is 0.86. The validity established by the internal consistency using Cranach’s Alpha (Cronbach, 1996 & Nunally, 1978) is 0.78 for the Intrusion and 0.82 for the Avoidance subscale. A correlation of 0.42 (P < .0002) between Intrusion and Avoidance subscales indicates that two subscales are associated but do not measure identical dimensions. The IES has been found a valid and reliable instrument in adult cancer patients including breast cancer (Osowiecki & Compas, 1998) and women with increased risk of breast cancer (Thewes, Meiser & Hickie, 2001). In the present study, the alpha computed is 0.80 for all items.
Avail Reference Files:
- Horowitz, M.J; Wilner, N; & Alvarez, W. (1979). Impact of event scale: A measure of subjective stress. Psychosomatic Medicine, 41 (3), 209-18. Retrieved from www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2472086
The purpose of our website is only to help students to assist them in finding the best suitable instrument for their research especially in Pakistan where students waste a lot of time in search of the instruments. It is totally free of cost and only for creating awareness and assisting students and researchers for good researches. Moreover, it is necessary for you to take the permission of scales from their representative authors before use because copyrights are reserved by the respected authors.
Help Us Improve This Article
Did you find an inaccuracy? We work hard to provide accurate and scientifically reliable information. If you have found an error of any kind, please let us know.
Add comment. we appropriate your effort.
Share with Us
If you have any scale or any material related to psychology kindly share it with us at [email protected]. We help others on behalf of you.