Depression: The Psychosocial Theory by Benjamin Wolman
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About Depression: The Psychosocial Theory by Benjamin Wolman
Depression: The Psychosocial Theory by Benjamin Wolman: The term depression is used to describe a variety of negative feelings, such as frustration, disappointment, mourning, and so on. Depression as a psychopathological term means the feeling of helplessness associated with blaming oneself for being helpless. Helpless anger directed against oneself and others and feeling guilty for being weak are the essential elements of depression.
There are two distinct types of depression, albeit their symptoms are quite similar. The distinction is based on etiologic factors. The first type, ecosomatogenic depression, is caused by biochemical factors; the second type, psychosociogenic depression, is caused by psychological factors. Both types of depression can be caused by inner (endogenous) or outer (exogenous) factors.
There is probably a genetic predisposition to both types of depression. There are three basic types of interaction with others: instrumental, mutual, and vectorial. Well-adjusted adults interact in an instrumental manner in the breadwinning functions, in a mutual manner in friendship and sexual relations, and in a vectorial manner in the parenting relation. Classification of mental disorders in the nosological system follows the division of three major psychopathological types: sociopathic hyperinstrumentals, depressive dysmutuals, and schizo-type hypervectorials. Psychosocial depression is dysmutual, that is, related to imbalances and shifts in moods and social relations.
The etiology of depressive-dysmutual disorders is chiefly related to faulty parent-child interaction. The parents of depressive patients show no affection toward nor interest in their children, except when the children are gravely ill or in a desperate situation. Children exposed to the parental emotional seesaw feel rejected and blame themselves for being rejected. They often wish to suffer, for that was the only way they gained love. In the masochistic streak of depression, depressed individuals hate themselves for not being loved and hate others for not loving them.
One may distinguish five levels of severity in depression: (a) depressive neurosis, (b) depressive character neurosis, (c) latent depressive psychosis, (d) manifest depressive psychosis, and (e) total collapse of personality structure. There are five possible syndromes in psychotic depression: (a) major depression, (b) mania, (c) paranoia, (d) agitated depression, and (e) simple deterioration. The division into unipolar or bipolar depression seems to be superfluous, for elation is one of the defense mechanisms of escape from depression.
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