Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

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Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

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About Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

Scale Name

Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

Author Details

Lauretta Bender. Revised by Scott L. Decker and Gary G. Brannigan

Translation Availability

Not Sure

Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test
Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

Background/Description

The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test is a psychological test used to assess visual-motor functioning, developmental disorders, and neurological impairments in children ages 3 and older and adults. The test consists of nine index cards picturing different geometric designs, which are presented individually to the test subject, who is asked to copy the design as accurately as possible. Test results are scored based on the accuracy and organization of the reproductions.

The Bender-Gestalt Test was developed in 1938 by child neuropsychiatrist Lauretta Bender. Bender was interested in the relationship between visual perception and motor skills, and she developed the test as a way to assess these functions in children and adults. She also believed that the test could be used to identify signs of neurological damage and emotional disturbance.

The Bender-Gestalt Test is one of the most widely used neuropsychological tests in the world. It is a relatively simple test to administer and score, and it can provide a wealth of information about a person’s cognitive functioning. The test is used in a variety of settings, including schools, hospitals, clinics, and private practice.

The Bender-Gestalt Test can be used for a variety of purposes, including:

  • Screening for developmental delays and neurological impairments
  • Assessing the effectiveness of treatment for developmental disorders and neurological impairments
  • Identifying emotional disturbances
  • Measuring cognitive development in children
  • Conducting research on visual-motor functioning and cognitive development

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation

The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (Bender-Gestalt Test) is typically administered individually in a quiet room with good lighting. The test administrator presents each card to the test subject one at a time and asks the subject to copy the design as accurately as possible. The test administrator does not provide any feedback or assistance during the test.

Materials

  • Bender-Gestalt Test stimulus cards (9 cards)
  • Blank paper
  • Pencil
  • Eraser

Instructions

  • Seat the test subject at a table with a blank sheet of paper and a pencil.
  • Place the first Bender-Gestalt Test stimulus card in front of the test subject.
  • Instruct the test subject to copy the design on the card as accurately as possible.
  • Do not provide any feedback or assistance to the test subject.
  • Once the test subject has finished copying the design, place the next stimulus card in front of them.
  • Repeat steps 3-5 until all nine stimulus cards have been presented.

Reliability and Validity

The Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test (Bender-Gestalt Test) is a reliable and valid test for assessing visual-motor functioning and identifying a variety of developmental disorders and neurological impairments.

The reliability of the Bender-Gestalt Test has been well-established in research studies. Test-retest reliability, which is the consistency of test scores over time, has been reported to be between 0.70 and 0.90. Inter-rater reliability, which is the agreement between different raters who score the same test, has been reported to be between 0.80 and 0.95.

The validity of the Bender-Gestalt Test has also been well-established in research studies. The test has been shown to be effective in discriminating between children with developmental disorders and typically developing children. It has also been shown to be effective in identifying neurological impairments in adults.

Additionally, the Bender-Gestalt Test has been shown to be correlated with other measures of cognitive functioning, such as intelligence tests and academic achievement tests. This suggests that the Bender-Gestalt Test is measuring a valid aspect of cognitive functioning.

Available Versions

16-Items

Reference

  • Bender, L. (1938). A visual motor Gestalt test and its clinical use. New York: American Orthopsychiatric Association.
  • Koppitz, E. M. (1975). The Bender Gestalt Test for young children. New York: Grune & Stratton.
  • Brannigan, G. G., & Decker, S. L. (2003). Bender visual-motor Gestalt test (2nd ed.). Itasca, IL: Riverside Publishing.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test?
A psychological test used to assess visual-motor functioning, developmental disorders, and neurological impairments in children and adults.

How is it administered?
The test administrator presents nine index cards with geometric designs to the test subject and asks them to copy each design as accurately as possible.

How is it scored?
The test is scored based on the accuracy and organization of the reproductions.

What can it be used for?
The Bender-Gestalt Test can be used to screen for developmental delays and neurological impairments, assess the effectiveness of treatment, identify emotional disturbances, measure cognitive development in children, and conduct research on visual-motor functioning and cognitive development.

Is it reliable and valid?
Yes, the Bender-Gestalt Test is a reliable and valid test for assessing visual-motor functioning and identifying a variety of developmental disorders and neurological impairments.

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