What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) Questionnaire
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About What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) Questionnaire
What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) Questionnaire is the most‐ widely used learning environment questionnaire in the world today. Its development involved combining modified versions of salient scales from a range of existing questionnaires with new scales that accommodate contemporary educational concerns.
What Is Happening In this Class? (WIHIC) Questionnaire authors originally designed a 90‐ item nine‐ scale version, which was refined based on a statistical analysis of data from 355 junior high school science students and interviewing of students (Fraser, Fisher & McRobbie, 1996). Later, analysis of data from an Australian sample of 1081 students in 50 classes and a Taiwanese sample of 1879 students in 50 classes (Aldridge & Fraser, 2000; Aldridge, Fraser & Huang, 1999) led to a final form of the WIHIC containing seven eight-item scales (Student Cohesiveness, Teacher Support, Involvement, Investigation, Task Orientation, Cooperation, Equity), with frequency response alternatives of Almost Never, Seldom, Sometimes, Often and Very Often. The WIHIC is made up of seven scales and 56 items (Fraser, Fisher, & McRobbie, 1996; Aldridge & Fraser, 2000).
Although the WIHIC is a relatively new instrument, it has been utilized in Asia frequently. It has been translated into several Asian languages and cross-validated:
- An English version has been cross-validated in Brunei Darussalam with samples of 644 Grade 10 Chemistry students (Riah & Fraser, 1998) and 1188 Form 5 science students (Khine & Fisher, 2001).
- Three studies have validated and used an English version of the WIHIC in Singapore. Chionh and Fraser (2009) reported strong validity and reliability for both an actual and a preferred form of the WIHIC when it was responded to for mathematics and geography subjects by a sample of 2310 students in 75 senior high school classes. Khoo and Fraser (2008) used the WIHIC with a sample of 250 adults attending computer courses in 23 classes in four Singaporean computing schools. Peer and Fraser (2015) used the WIHIC with 1081 primary science students in 55 classes.
- A Chinese version of the WIHIC has been developed for use in Taiwan and cross-validated with a sample of 1879 junior high school students in 50 classes (Aldridge & Fraser, 2000; Aldridge, Fraser & Huang, 1999).
- Chua, Wong, and Chen (2011) developed a Chinese-language version of the WIHIC based on the Taiwanese version of Aldridge, Fraser, and Huang (1999). This is a bilingual instrument with every item presented in both English and Chinese. Detailed procedures were used to develop this Chinese version, which was cross-validated with a sample of 1460 students in 50 classes.
- The WIHIC has been translated into the Korean language and validated with a sample of 543 Grade 8 students in 12 schools (Kim et al., 2000).
- The WIHIC has been translated into the Indonesian language and used with university students in computing-related courses. The validity and usefulness of the WIHIC have been established for samples of 2498 university students in 50 computing classes (Margianti, Fraser & Aldridge, 2001) and 422 students in 12 research methods classes (Soerjaningsih, Fraser & Aldridge, 2001). Also, the WIHIC was used with 594 students from 18 classes in Indonesia, and 567 students from 18 classes in Australia are investigating the strength of the associations between students’ perceptions of their classroom environment and their attitude to science (Fraser, Aldridge & Adolphe, 2010).
The WIHIC has been cross-validated and used in several studies in North America among
- 573 elementary science students in Florida by Pickett and Fraser (2009)
- 525 female prospective elementary teachers in a large university in California by Martin-Dunlop and Fraser (2008)
- 30 National Board Certified secondary school teachers and 927 students in Miami, Florida by Helding and Fraser (2013)
- 172 kindergarten students and 78 parents in Florida by Robinson and Fraser (2013)
- 661 middle-school mathematics students in California by Ogbuehi and Fraser (2007)
- 1434 middle-school science students in New York by Wolf and Fraser (2008).
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