The Sport Anxiety Scale

The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2)

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About Scale Name

Scale Name

The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2)

Author Details

Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Sean P. Cumming, and Joel R. Grossbard

Translation Availability

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The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2)
The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2)


The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) is a widely recognized psychological assessment tool designed to measure anxiety in the context of sports performance. It is an updated version of the original Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS), aiming to provide a more comprehensive and nuanced understanding of the anxiety experienced by athletes.

The need for a tool like the SAS-2 arises from the recognition that anxiety can have a significant impact on an athlete’s performance. It can manifest in various ways, including physical symptoms (somatic anxiety), cognitive concerns (worry), and difficulties with concentration and focus. Understanding and addressing these dimensions of anxiety is crucial for coaches, sports psychologists, and athletes themselves in order to optimize performance.

The development of the SAS-2 was likely guided by a combination of theoretical frameworks in sports psychology and empirical research. It likely involved rigorous testing to ensure its reliability and validity as a measurement tool. The authors, Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Sean P. Cumming, and Joel R. Grossbard, are likely experts in sports psychology and may have drawn on their extensive knowledge in this field to develop the SAS-2.

The SAS-2 is intended to be applicable to a wide range of athletes, including both children and adults. This universality makes it a valuable tool for researchers, coaches, and clinicians working with athletes across different age groups.

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation

Here’s a general overview of how the SAS-2 is typically administered:


Ensure that you have the necessary materials, including the SAS-2 questionnaire, scoring sheets, and writing instruments.
Familiarize yourself with the specific version of the SAS-2 you are using, as there may be variations in wording or format.

Participant Information:

Begin by providing some basic information about the participant, such as their name, age, gender, and any other relevant demographic details.

Explanation of the Scale:

Briefly explain the purpose of the SAS-2 to the participant. Let them know that it is a tool designed to measure anxiety in the context of sports performance.


Clearly explain the instructions for completing the questionnaire. Emphasize the importance of providing honest and accurate responses.

Completing the Questionnaire:

Participants will then proceed to fill out the SAS-2 questionnaire. This typically involves rating a series of statements related to anxiety in the context of sports on a Likert-type scale (e.g., from “Not at all” to “Very much so”).

Ensuring Privacy and Comfort:

Provide a private and comfortable environment for participants to complete the questionnaire. This helps promote honest and candid responses.

Time Frame:

Indicate to participants how much time they have to complete the questionnaire. This helps manage expectations and ensures that the process is efficient.


If participants have any questions or require clarification about specific items, be available to provide assistance without influencing their responses.

Collecting and Scoring Responses:

Once participants have completed the questionnaire, collect the forms. Ensure that responses are kept confidential.

Reliability and Validity

The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) has been developed and validated as a reliable and valid multidimensional measure of sport performance anxiety. The scale was developed within the context of a coach and parent intervention project in which performance anxiety was one of several outcome variables.

The goal was to provide researchers with a reliable and valid multidimensional measure of sport performance anxiety that would mirror the factor structure of the original SAS, but measure its dimensions more precisely. Such a measure would enable researchers to measure individual differences in somatic anxiety, worry, and concentration disruption; to study the antecedents and consequences of cognitive and somatic performance anxiety in children and adults; and to measure multidimensional anxiety in longitudinal studies that begin in childhood.

The SAS-2 has stronger factorial validity than the original scale and construct validity research indicates that scores relate to other psychological measures as expected. The scale has been shown to have good internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients ranging from .79 to .89 for the three subscales and .91 for the total scale. The SAS-2 has been shown to reliably predict precompetition state anxiety scores and proved sensitive to anxiety-reduction interventions directed at youth sport coaches and parents.

Available Versions



Smith, R. E., Smoll, F. L., Cumming, S. P., & Grossbard, J. R. (2006). Measurement of multidimensional sport performance anxiety in children and adults: The Sport Anxiety Scale-2. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 28(4), 479-501.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

Q: What is the SAS-2?
A: The Sport Anxiety Scale-2 (SAS-2) is a tool to measure anxiety in sports performance.

Q: Who developed the SAS-2?
A: Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll, Sean P. Cumming, and Joel R. Grossbard from the University of Washington.

Q: Is the SAS-2 suitable for children?
A: Yes, the SAS-2 is designed for both children and adults.

Q: What does the SAS-2 measure?
A: It assesses various dimensions of anxiety related to sports performance.


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I am a senior clinical psychologist with over 11years of experience in the field. I am the founder of Psychology Roots, a platform that provides solutions and support to learners and professionals in psychology. My goal is to help people understand and improve their mental health, and to empower them to live happier and healthier lives.

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