Gender Stereotype Scale

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Gender Stereotype Scale

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About Gender Stereotype Scale

Scale Name

Gender Stereotype Scale

Author Details

Arjun Sekhar PM and Dr. J Parameswari

Translation Availability

Not Sure


Gender stereotypes are the over-generalization about the attributes and characteristics of individuals based on their gender. Such stereotypes are prevalent in many societies, and they often determine the roles and expectations of members based on their gender. In order to understand the various aspects of gender stereotypes, a standardized and culturally adapted gender stereotype scale is essential. However, the number of gender stereotype scales is limited, particularly in the context of India.
In response to this need, Arjun Sekhar PM and Dr. J Parameswari developed and validated a gender stereotype scale in the Indian context.

The study involved 945 individuals throughout various phases and identified four factors through exploratory factor analysis: trans-phobia, masculinity, patriarchy, and femininity. Confirmatory factor analysis was used to identify and finalize 23 items with a good model fit. The proposed scale demonstrated a reliable internal consistency (α) of 0.85 and a split-half reliability score of 0.76. The face and content validity were established, and concurrent validity (0.40) was determined by comparing the new scale to an existing standardized gender stereotype scale.

It is important to note that gender and sex are often used interchangeably in everyday conversation, but they have distinct meanings in certain contexts. Sex refers to biological characteristics, such as sex chromosomes and organs, while gender pertains to an individual’s concept of themselves according to social categories. Gender is a human cultural creation and its role and norms vary across different sociocultural contexts.

Various cognitive developmental theories exist to explain gender development, such as gender identity, gender stability, gender consistency, gender schema theory, and social cognitive theory, which all highlight the role of personal, behavioral, and environmental factors in shaping gender. Gender stereotype, whether positive or negative, is detrimental to individuals and society given its over-generalization of specific attributes and characteristics based on gender.

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation

  • Introduction: The researcher or facilitator should start by introducing themselves and explaining the purpose of the study. They should also emphasize the anonymity and confidentiality of the participants’ responses.
  • Instructions: Participants should be given clear instructions on how to complete the GSS. This includes explaining the rating scale and how to answer any open-ended questions.
  • Administering the Scale: The GSS can be administered in a variety of ways, such as:
    • Paper-and-pencil format: This is the traditional method, where participants are given a questionnaire with the GSS statements and rating scale.
    • Computer-based format: The GSS can also be administered online using a survey platform.
    • Verbal format: In some cases, the GSS may be administered verbally, with the researcher reading the statements aloud and recording the participants’ responses.
  • Data Collection: Once participants have completed the GSS, the researcher should collect the questionnaires or data.

Here are some additional things to keep in mind when administering the GSS:

  • Time: The amount of time it takes to complete the GSS will vary depending on the length of the scale and the format in which it is administered. However, it is typically a relatively quick and easy assessment to complete.
  • Scoring: The GSS is typically scored by summing the participant’s ratings on all of the items. Higher scores indicate a greater endorsement of traditional gender stereotypes.
  • Ethical Considerations: It is important to obtain informed consent from participants before administering the GSS. Participants should also be debriefed at the end of the study and informed about how their data will be used.

Reliability and Validity

The Gender Stereotype Scale has undergone a rigorous validation process that established both its reliability and validity. The internal consistency of the scale was found to be high, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85, indicating good reliability. Further, a split-half reliability score of 0.76 was obtained, indicating that the scale is consistent regardless of how it is split.

The validity of the scale was also established through content, face, and concurrent validity. Content and face validity were determined by circulating the final draft of the scale to 17 experts in the field. Feedback from the experts resulted in the elimination of slightly overlapping and potentially confusing items, thereby improving content and face validity. Concurrent validity was established by comparing the scores obtained from the Gender Stereotype Scale with an existing standardized gender stereotype scale, resulting in a concurrent validity of 0.40.

Thus, the Gender Stereotype Scale demonstrates good reliability and validity for measuring gender stereotypes in the Indian context.

Available Versions



PM, A. S., & Parameswari, J. (2020). Development and Validation of Gender Stereotype Scale. Journal of the Indian Academy of Applied Psychology46(1), 48-56.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

  1. What is the Gender Stereotype Scale?
    The Gender Stereotype Scale is a standardized and culturally adapted psychometric tool used to measure gender stereotypes in the Indian context.
  2. How was the Gender Stereotype Scale developed?
    The Gender Stereotype Scale was developed through a rigorous validation process that included exploratory factor analysis, confirmatory factor analysis, and reliability and validity testing.
  3. What are the factors identified in the Gender Stereotype Scale?
    The exploratory factor analysis of the Gender Stereotype Scale identified four factors: trans-phobia, masculinity, patriarchy, and femininity.
  4. What is the minimum and maximum score of the Gender Stereotype Scale?
    The minimum score one could obtain on the Gender Stereotype Scale is 23, and the maximum score is 115.
  5. What is the reliability of the Gender Stereotype Scale?
    The reliability of the Gender Stereotype Scale is high, with a Cronbach’s alpha of 0.85 indicating good internal consistency and a split-half reliability score of 0.76.
  6. What is the validity of the Gender Stereotype Scale?
    The validity of the Gender Stereotype Scale was established through content, face, and concurrent validity.
  7. How many items are in the Gender Stereotype Scale?
    The finalized Gender Stereotype Scale comprises 23 items that have demonstrated high reliability and validity through rigorous testing.


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