Curiosity and Exploration Inventory

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Curiosity and Exploration Inventory

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About Scale Name

Scale Name

Curiosity and Exploration Inventory

Author Details

odd B. Kashdan, Michael W. Gallagher, Paul J. Silvia, Brian P. Winterstein, William E. Breen, David Terhar, and Michael F. Steger.

Translation Availability

Not Sure

Curiosity and Exploration Inventory
Curiosity and Exploration Inventory


The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II) is a 10-item scale with two factors: the motivation to seek out knowledge and new experiences (Stretching; five items) and a willingness to embrace the novel, uncertain, and unpredictable nature of everyday life (Embracing; five items).

The first factor, Exploration, refers to appetitive strivings for novel and challenging information and experiences. The second factor, Absorption, refers to the propensity to be deeply engaged in activities. Respondents rate items using a 7-point Likert-type scale.

The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II) is a self-report instrument assessing individual differences in the recognition, pursuit, and integration of novel and challenging experiences and information.

Scoring, Administration and Interpretation

The CEI-II consists of 10 items that are rated on a 5-point Likert scale ranging from 1 (not at all true of me) to 5 (completely true of me). The items are grouped into seven subscales: Joyous Exploration, Deprivation Sensitivity, Social Curiosity, Thrill Seeking, Stress Tolerance, Openness to Experience, and Absorption. Higher scores on these subscales indicate higher levels of curiosity and exploration behavior in each domain. The total score is calculated by summing the scores across all subscales.

Reliability and Validity

The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI-II) has good internal reliability and shows moderately large positive relationships with intrinsic motivation, reward sensitivity, openness to experience, and subjective vitality. Moreover, the CEI-II has shown incremental validity over and above the overlapping constructs of positive affect and reward sensitivity.

The CEI-II takes less than 2 minutes to complete, but there is no time limit. A state version of the CEI-II has also been validated, demonstrating sensitivity to change.

Available Versions



Kashdan, T. B., Gallagher, M. W., Silvia, P. J., Winterstein, B. P., Breen, W. E., Terhar, D., & Steger, M. F. (2009). The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory-II: Development, factor structure, and psychometrics. Journal of Research in Personality, 43, 987-998.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the CEI used for?
The CEI is an assessment tool designed to measure individual differences in curiosity and exploration. It can be used by researchers, educators, and clinicians to better understand these constructs and their relationship to other psychological variables.

How long does it take to complete the CEI?
The CEI consists of 30 items in total, so it typically takes between 10-15 minutes to complete.

Is the CEI a valid and reliable measure of curiosity and exploration?
Yes, the CEI has been shown to have good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and convergent and discriminant validity, suggesting that it is a valid and reliable measure of curiosity and exploration.

Can the CEI be used with different populations?
Yes, the CEI has been used with a variety of populations, including college students, adults, and older adults. However, it is important to consider cultural and demographic factors that may influence responses to the inventory.

Are there any limitations to the CEI?
One limitation of the original CEI was that it did not distinguish between different types of curiosity. The CEI-II was developed to address this issue and includes subscales for different types of curiosity and exploration behaviors. Additionally, as with any self-report measure, responses on the CEI may be influenced by social desirability biases or other factors that impact response accuracy.


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