Burns Anxiety Inventory

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Burns Anxiety Inventory

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About Scale Name

Scale Name

Burns Anxiety Inventory

Author Details

Dr. David D. Burns

Translation Availability

Not Sure

Burns Anxiety Inventory
Burns Anxiety Inventory


The Burns Anxiety Inventory (BAI) was developed by Dr. David D. Burns in 1998 as a tool for assessing the severity of anxiety symptoms. Dr. Burns is a clinical psychiatrist and author who has written several books on cognitive-behavioral therapy, including “Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy” and “When Panic Attacks.”

Dr. Burns developed the BAI because he found that existing measures of anxiety symptom severity were not always accurate or comprehensive enough. He wanted to create a tool that would be easy to use and interpret, and that would provide a more complete picture of a patient’s anxiety symptoms.

The BAI has been widely used in both research and clinical settings since its development. It has been shown to have good reliability and validity, and has been translated into several languages. The BAI is now considered one of the most widely used self-report measures of anxiety symptom severity.

Scoring, Administration and Interpretation

The Burns Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is a self-report questionnaire that can be administered in both research and clinical settings. Below are the steps for administering, scoring, and interpreting the BAI:

Administration: Provide instructions to the participant: Explain to the participant that the BAI is a tool used to assess symptoms of anxiety experienced over the past week. Provide the questionnaire: Give the participant the BAI questionnaire, which consists of 21 items.
Instruct the participant how to respond: The participant should rate how much each symptom bothered them over the past week on a scale from 0 (“not at all”) to 3 (“severely”).

Scoring: Score each item: Items are scored from 0 to 3 based on the participant’s response. Sum the scores: Add up the scores for each of the 21 items. Interpret the total score: The total score ranges from 0 to 63, with higher scores indicating more severe anxiety symptoms.


  • Minimal anxiety: Total score of 0-7
  • Mild anxiety: Total score of 8-15
  • Moderate anxiety: Total score of 16-25
  • Severe anxiety: Total score of 26-63

It is important to note that the BAI is not intended to be used as a sole diagnostic tool for anxiety disorders, but rather as a tool to assess the severity of anxiety symptoms. It is also important to interpret the results of the BAI within the context of other assessment measures and in consultation with a qualified mental health professional.

Reliability and Validity

The Burns Anxiety Inventory (BAI) is a reliable and valid self-report measure for assessing anxiety symptoms. The BAI has demonstrated high test-retest reliability over time periods ranging from one week to six months, indicating that scores are stable over time. In addition, the BAI exhibits high internal consistency, with Cronbach’s alpha coefficients typically ranging from 0.86 to 0.96.

With regard to validity, the BAI has strong construct validity as it highly correlates with other self-report measures of anxiety such as the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory and the Beck Anxiety Inventory. Furthermore, the BAI has been shown to discriminate between individuals with anxiety disorders and those without anxiety disorders, suggesting that it can accurately distinguish between individuals with high and low levels of anxiety symptoms.

Finally, the BAI has also been found to be sensitive to changes in anxiety symptoms following treatment, demonstrating its usefulness in evaluating treatment outcomes.

Available Versions



Burns, D. D. (1999). The Burns Anxiety Inventory. In Burns, D. D. (Ed.), Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (pp. 607-611). Penguin Books.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is the purpose of the BAI?
The BAI is a self-report questionnaire designed to measure the severity of anxiety symptoms in adults and adolescents. It can be used in both clinical and research settings to evaluate anxiety symptoms and treatment outcomes.

How long does it take to complete the BAI?
The BAI consists of 21 items and typically takes 5-10 minutes to complete.

Is the BAI a diagnostic tool for anxiety disorders?
No, the BAI is not intended to be used as a sole diagnostic tool for anxiety disorders, but rather as a tool to assess the severity of anxiety symptoms.

How is the BAI scored?
Participants rate how much each symptom bothered them over the past week on a scale from 0 (“not at all”) to 3 (“severely”). The scores for each question are summed to obtain a total score, which can range from 0 to 63. Higher scores indicate more severe anxiety symptoms.

What do the scores on the BAI mean?
Total scores on the BAI can be interpreted as follows: minimal anxiety (0-7), mild anxiety (8-15), moderate anxiety (16-25), and severe anxiety (26-63).

Has the BAI been translated into other languages?
Yes, the BAI has been translated into several languages, including Spanish, French, Chinese, Japanese, Korean, and German, among others.

Is the BAI available for online administration?
Yes, the BAI is available in online formats that can be administered and scored electronically.

Special Thanks

Mr. Muhammad Mujtaba Provide us this helpfull information.


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