Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

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Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

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About Scale Name

Scale Name

Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

Author Details

William W. K. Zung

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Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale
Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale

Background/Description

The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale is a widely used psychological assessment tool that was developed by William W. K. Zung, an American psychiatrist. The scale is designed to measure the severity of anxiety symptoms in individuals who may be experiencing various anxiety disorders, such as generalized anxiety disorder, panic disorder, and post-traumatic stress disorder.

The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale consists of 20 items that assess common symptoms of anxiety, such as tension, fear, worry, and nervousness. Each item is rated on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 (rarely or none of the time) to 4 (most or all of the time). Scores on the scale can range from 20 to 80, with higher scores indicating more severe symptoms of anxiety.

The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale has been shown to have good reliability and validity, making it a useful tool for both research and clinical practice. It is relatively easy to administer and takes only a few minutes to complete, making it a convenient option for assessing anxiety symptoms in a variety of settings.

Scoring, Administration and Interpretation

Scoring: The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale consists of 20 items, each scored on a Likert-type scale ranging from 1 to 4. The scores for each item are summed to give a total score that can range from 20 to 80. Higher scores indicate more severe symptoms of anxiety.

Interpretation: Scores on the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale can be interpreted as follows:

20-44: Normal range
45-59: Mild to moderate anxiety
60-74: Marked to severe anxiety
75 and above: Extreme anxiety

Administration: The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale is a self-report questionnaire that can be administered in a variety of settings, including clinical, research, and educational settings. It takes only a few minutes to complete, making it a convenient option for assessing anxiety symptoms.

Individuals are asked to read each item carefully and rate how often they experience the symptom described on a scale of 1 to 4, where 1 indicates that the symptom is rarely or none of the time present, and 4 indicates that the symptom is most or all of the time present.

It is important to note that the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale is not intended to be used as a diagnostic tool, but rather as a way to measure the severity of anxiety symptoms in individuals who may be experiencing anxiety disorders. A thorough clinical evaluation by a qualified healthcare professional is necessary to make a diagnosis of an anxiety disorder.

Reliability and Validity

Reliability: Internal consistency, or the degree to which all items on the scale are measuring the same construct, was found to be high in multiple studies. Cronbach’s alpha coefficients for the scale range from 0.73 to 0.91, indicating that the scale items are consistent in measuring anxiety symptoms.

Test-retest reliability, or the degree to which the scale produces consistent results over time, has also been shown to be high, with correlation coefficients ranging from 0.72 to 0.96.

Validity: Content validity, or the degree to which the scale measures what it is intended to measure, has been supported by expert review and by the fact that the items of the scale were developed based on clinical experience and psychiatric literature.

Criterion validity, or the degree to which the scale correlates with other measures of anxiety, has also been demonstrated. The scale has been found to correlate well with other well-established anxiety rating scales, such as the Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.

Construct validity, or the degree to which the scale measures the intended construct of anxiety, has also been supported by factor analysis, which suggests that the items of the scale load onto a single factor representing anxiety.

Available Versions

20-Items

Reference

Zung, W. W. (1971). A rating instrument for anxiety disorders. Psychosomatics, 12(6), 371-379. https://doi.org/10.1016/s0033-3182(71)71479-0

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently asked Question

What is the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale?
The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale is a widely used self-report questionnaire that measures the severity of anxiety symptoms in adults. It consists of 20 items that assess different aspects of anxiety, such as tension, fear, and restlessness.

How do you administer the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale?
The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale is typically administered as a written questionnaire that individuals complete on their own. Each item is rated on a 4-point scale (from “none or a little of the time” to “most or all of the time”). The total score ranges from 20 to 80, with higher scores indicating more severe anxiety symptoms.

What is the purpose of using the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale?
The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale can be used for several purposes, such as screening individuals for anxiety disorders, monitoring the effectiveness of treatment over time, and comparing the severity of anxiety symptoms across different groups of people.

Is the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale accurate?
The Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale has been found to be a reliable and valid measure of anxiety symptoms in several studies. However, like any self-report questionnaire, it may be subject to biases and inaccuracies if individuals do not answer the questions truthfully or accurately.

Can the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale be used for diagnosing anxiety disorders?
No, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety Scale is not intended for diagnosing anxiety disorders on its own. It can be used as a screening tool to identify individuals who may need further evaluation by a mental health professional, but a clinical diagnosis should not be based solely on the results of this questionnaire.

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