Collaborative Learning, Social Presence, and Satisfaction (CLSS) Questionnaire
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About Collaborative Learning, Social Presence, and Satisfaction (CLSS) Questionnaire
This questionnaire, originally consisting of four sections and 56 items, was developed to measure students’
perceived levels of collaborative learning, social presence, and overall satisfaction:
- Section 1 (General Information): Six demographic items.
- Section 2 (Satisfaction Scale): Ten questionnaire items were based on the satisfaction scale by Gunawardena and Zittle (1997). Four items were added to measure students’ overall satisfaction with the course, instructor, and learning activities.
- Section 3 (Collaborative Learning Scale): Ten items were constructed to measure student perspectives on preferences to group versus individual work, and preferences to online interaction versus face-to-face interaction, amounts of collaboration, and overall satisfaction with collaborative learning, and so forth. These items were based on previous research (e.g., Driver, 2002; Kitchen & McDougall, 1998) on online collaborative learning.
- Section 4 (Social Presence Scale): The Computer-Mediated Communication (CMC) Questionnaire developed by Tu (2002) was used to measure students’ perceptions of social presence on four factors: (a) social context, (b) online communication, (c) interactivity, and (d) privacy.
- Student perceptions of collaborative learning, social presence, and satisfaction in a blended learning environment: Relationships and critical factors
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