Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

Aamir Ranjha

Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

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About Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

Scale Name

Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale

Author Details

Kelly Posner, Ph.D., David A. Brent, J. John Mann, M.D.

Translation Availability

Not Sure

Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale
Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale


The Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) emerged from a growing need for a standardized and reliable tool to assess suicide risk. Developed in the early 2000s by a team of researchers led by Dr. Kelly Posner and Dr. David Brent, the C-SSRS addressed the limitations of existing suicide assessment methods that lacked consistency and objectivity.

Drawing upon the National Institute of Mental Health’s study on adolescent suicide attempters, the C-SSRS was built upon the established Columbia Suicide History Form (CSHF). This foundation ensured clear definitions and a structured approach to gathering information about suicidal thoughts, wishes, and behaviors.

The C-SSRS quickly gained recognition for its strengths:

  • Standardized Format: Administered through a semi-structured interview, the C-SSRS ensures consistent questioning and scoring across users, making results comparable across settings and studies.
  • Comprehensive Assessment: The scale goes beyond mere ideation, delving into specific plans, intent, and preparatory actions, providing a detailed picture of suicide risk.
  • Multiple Versions: Three versions cater to different needs: Lifetime/Recent for comprehensive history, Since Last Visit for monitoring progress, and Screener for rapid assessments.
  • High Reliability and Validity: Extensive research has demonstrated the C-SSRS’s accuracy in identifying individuals at risk for suicide and tracking changes in risk over time.

The C-SSRS became widely adopted in clinical settings, research studies, and even by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as the “gold standard” for measuring suicidal ideation and behavior in clinical trials. This recognition solidified its position as a crucial tool in suicide prevention efforts.

Despite its widespread use, ongoing discussions address potential limitations:

  • Potential for Misinterpretation: The scale requires trained professionals to administer and interpret accurately, highlighting the importance of proper training.
  • Focus on Specific Behaviors: The C-SSRS may not capture the nuances of complex situations or diverse cultural contexts.
  • Potential for Misuse: While designed for risk assessment, it’s crucial to remember the C-SSRS is not a diagnostic tool and shouldn’t be used solely for that purpose.

Administration, Scoring and Interpretation

  • Training: Only trained mental health professionals, including psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and nurses, should administer the C-SSRS. Training covers the scale’s purpose, scoring system, and ethical considerations.
  • Informed Consent: Explain the scale’s purpose, procedures, and potential risks/benefits to the individual beforehand and obtain informed consent.
  • Setting: Choose a private, quiet, and comfortable setting where confidentiality is assured and interruptions are minimized.
  • Follow the Script: Use the standardized C-SSRS script to ask questions in a neutral, non-judgmental, and empathetic manner.
  • Clarify Responses: If needed, probe gently to clarify ambiguous responses or obtain more details.
  • Active Listening: Maintain eye contact, listen attentively, and validate the individual’s feelings and experiences.
  • Score Responses: Assign relevant scores based on the C-SSRS scoring system for each question.

Reliability and Validity

The C-SSRS has undergone extensive research to assess its reliability and validity, making it a well-respected tool for suicide risk assessment. Here’s a breakdown of its strengths and some potential limitations:


  • Strong Internal Consistency: The scale consistently measures what it’s intended to measure, with Cronbach’s alpha values typically exceeding 0.8, indicating good internal consistency across different subcategories (ideation, intent, behavior).
  • Test-Retest Reliability: Scores remain stable over time when reassessing individuals in similar conditions, demonstrating consistency within individuals.
  • Inter-rater Reliability: Different trained professionals administering the scale tend to agree on the scores obtained, ensuring consistency across users.


  • Content Validity: The scale items comprehensively cover various aspects of suicidal thoughts, wishes, and behaviors, making it relevant to the intended purpose.
  • Construct Validity: Scores correlate with other measures of suicidal intent and behavior, confirming it measures what it claims to.
  • Concurrent Validity: C-SSRS scores align with clinician’s independent assessments of suicide risk, demonstrating agreement with other established methods.
  • Predictive Validity: Studies show higher C-SSRS scores predict future suicide attempts or deaths, indicating its utility in identifying individuals at risk.


  • Potential for Misinterpretation: Requires trained professionals for accurate administration and interpretation due to the nuances involved.
  • Cultural Sensitivity: While translated into numerous languages, cultural adaptations might be necessary for optimal validity across diverse populations.
  • Focus on Specific Behaviors: May not capture the full complexity of suicidal thoughts and behaviors in certain situations.
  • Potential for Misuse: Not a diagnostic tool and shouldn’t be solely relied upon for diagnosis or legal purposes.

Available Versions



Posner, K., Brent, D., Lucas, C., Gould, M., Stanley, B., Brown, G., … & Mann, J. (2008). Columbia-suicide severity rating scale (C-SSRS). New York, NY: Columbia University Medical Center10, 2008.

Important Link

Scale File:

Frequently Asked Questions

What is it?
A tool to assess suicide risk by asking about thoughts, wishes, and behaviors.

Who uses it?
Trained mental health professionals in various settings.

What are the benefits?
Standardized, reliable, and valid for identifying at-risk individuals. Multiple versions for different needs (lifetime, recent, screening).

What are the limitations?
Requires trained professionals for accurate administration and interpretation.
Focuses on specific behaviors, may not capture full complexity.
Not a diagnostic tool, shouldn’t be used alone.


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I am a senior clinical psychologist with over 11years of experience in the field. I am the founder of Psychology Roots, a platform that provides solutions and support to learners and professionals in psychology. My goal is to help people understand and improve their mental health, and to empower them to live happier and healthier lives.

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